Wednesday, July 3, 2013

Szondi Test Study Item 001

Hungarian psychiatrist, Leopold Szondi invention, "The Szondi Test" Dr. Szondi said; worked as a projective test, do to an innate principle that he believed everyone  has, that will  cause a person to like or dislike the facial features  photos of individuals suffering from certan  eight specific mental disorder conditions, used in his test set; in anlog proportions relevant to the photos like and dislike reaction, as if, a mirror of the related drive impulses somewhat as if a mixed mental inheritance traits that are seeking to satisfy themselves. 

'Normal', then being, a balanced mixture and 'abnormal' being choice making leading to unwanted symptoms or over time to certain forms of existence  These are do to an unbalanced  'dive impulse 'mixtures. A persons choices of the reagent facial photes then reflect that the test subject person has traits and impulses derived from that person's gene ancestry, that shape a persons preferential choices in his life including sexual mates, friends, occupations, and over time that person's final trajectory in life, therefore in some terms, a fate path.This effect was called 'genotrophism'. Szondi perhaps to attract notice, called this overall work and test use  "Fate Analysis" and the theoretical basis "Fate Analytic Psychology".

Introduction Notes:
To start with to learn details of the Szondi Test and it's unique theoretical basis, it seens wise to in general to follow the introductory appeach of SUSAN DERI, Dr. Szondi's star student and co-worker. But with the up front caution you will find many revisions are how added do to shifts of emphasis away from Freudian based psychoanalysis in the intervening years since the publication of Deri's, 1948 "Introduction to the Szondi Test -(Grune & Stratton, N.Y.). as well as Dr. Szondi's  own continued  evolution  his own thinking toward a concept of 'states of existance', as being the the end result of an individual's outcome position in life (a person's gene driven fate) only partly modifiable by edication, social pressue ans his significant relationships and environmental pressures.  Further  my own limited  experience with a very different patient base and cultural background location which may have caused me to introduce incorrect revisions, without notice. Please go to original sources should you need total fidelity. My goal is to open up new ways of thinking from which you the inquiring person can decide for yourself, what may or may not be of value to consider.  
Interestingly the recent mapping of the human  genome has caused a renewed interest in idea of traits temperaments, impulses, and mental disorders, that might be gene passed.
--Dr. B

It's now multiple decades  since,  Leopold ('Lipot'- in Hungarian) Szondi, M.D., World War 1 Hungarian army medic, professor, qualified in both endocrinology and psychiatry and later psychoanalysis, through a training analysis with a  Budapest protégé of  psycoanalyst Sandor Ferenzi, Dr Szondi came to constructed a picture test as an assist to genealogical studies he was conducting in marriage and mate selection genecology studies that he was investigating at the time. 

The test material, consisted of 48 photo­graphs of eight types of mental patients who had a clinical diagnosis and a confirmed recurring same disorder in their family history.  Tha test photes were printed on 2"x3" cards in te final test set. Copyrighted as the "Szondi Test" and distributed by Hans Huber Press, Berne Switzerland.

 The eight mental disorders represented were ones that Dr. Szondi believed were certain ones gene passed. The original purpose of this test was to prove experimentally his theory about gene passed heredity causing people's choices in life, particularly love and marriage mates in the role of genotrophism being a hidden influence in an individual's choices in his adult life this was quickly extended to a testing of the public and specical clinical populating as the information base expanded and with what was learned from various choices belonging to specific population groups both inside clinical labels and outside groups, such as schools jail populatond and age and occupational groups. This way filling out a knowledge base of many different  psychological types considered normal. different or mental issues types. This led Dr. Szondi to conclude that there are many different normal's that have different paths leading to where the individual finds his position in life, in his later works these are described as 'forms of existence'.. 

 According  to his  theory, the mental disorders repre­sented in the test set are of genetic origin and cause through some inate reflex, he called the non-verbal "language of choice' --('like, dislike or indifference') as the subject's reactions to these select photographs. This has heen called 'fanciful' 'unprovable '-by critics of the test, to whom Dr. Szondi suggested, that they try it for themselves before rejecting it.

Dr. Szondi believed that a subject's choice depended upon some automatic simularity between the gene­tic facial structure that in some cryptic way a reagent photo carryed traces of the traits and impulses, a subject will  subconsciously responds to and which then, parallels in the test results choices in life parelling as inclinations in the photo ensemble, a reflection of what are are needs and drives in his life.

Test results are a reflection of the subject's  preferences at that moment in time that the Szondi  profile was sampled.

 The choices a test subject makes may be stable and some choices may change as subject's life aand  various curcumstances and needs change. This is very notable with inthe  examples of different moods, stages of development, hormonal effects, and with the use of certain medications and street drugs.
These  changes do not invalidate the test, and are in fact, one of this test's unique values. most useful for recognizing the changing moods and drive impulse are revealed in sequential different profiles when taken at the recommended, every other day retake of the test.

A 'drive-impuse' hypotheses is suggested, as derived from the test interpretative use. It can be considered as posible that that each disorder the test represents, only become that disorder clinically, when existing in a persistent and exaggerated strength, supported by a recessive gene ancestors making the particular disorde a come possible outcome. 

'Normal' then, being a balanced mixture of the overall drive-impulses associated with these eight mental inheritance lines universal to our species.

 This is reflected as the profiles change as the needs each profile factor {modeled on the inclinations and drive nature the mental disorder it takes its name from} has for a subject in that a subject become indiferent to those factors photo choice process. This is believed to happen when the drive-needs relating to that disorder traits belongin to the eitht mental disorders (also mamed in the test as Factor's}. It is hypothized that the Factors -- have by some means been satisfied. In the test profile such a lack of choices an indifference is called an 'open'  in the Szondi Test jargon you will need to learn.

The  cods for disoders selected by Dr. Sondi were: Homosexuality [h], Sadism [s] , Epilepcy [e\, Hysteria][hy], Catatonia [k]. paranoiia, [p]. deesive [d] manic [m]
Today these choices may seem odd and several have been purged from DSM-IV as most being obsolite. But before you grap your DSM handbook and leave, you need to eee what Szondi took them to mean in his way of thinking. These terms still have meaning and have only been fragmented and assigned to new labels in the handbook.

The photos finally selected for use in the  Szondi Test ensemble were of subject patients known to work well in causing the useful match choice responses  with reliable comparisons to the specific mental disorder for which a reagent or stimulus photo was needed.
The test building process was to involve exploring various traits, inclinations and clinical issues to find the correct interpretaion process. were by trial and error practice tested before they were included in final test set. The ensemble has not been revised since its publication. The low tech printing quality of which has been a contention of critics since its publication after world war 2 ended and Dr, Szondi became a Swiss resident and had the resources to publish and continue the development of what he always called his 'experimental test'.

My principle source after Szondi himself is Susan Deri who was present during the test development phase, carried out in Hungary before the outbreak of world war 2.
 She preferred a psychoanalytic based dynamic model approach for interpretation of the test findings, which differs from the empiric and statistical model apparently preferred by Dr. Szondi himself. There are newer investigators combining more recent revisions in interpretation useage, such as Michael Legrand writing in French and who introduces fresh dialog on the 'forms of existence'  in respect to the ultimate fate of individuals,

To take a Szondi Test 'profile'  The subject ts asked in six sets of eight photos each, to choose, without hesitation, the two pictures subject liked most and the two he likes the least. In this way examiner ends up with twelve 'likes' an twelve dislikes'. On the back of each picture is a code to inform the examiner to where to enter the result into a grid designed By Dr, Szondi  to display the result.  The test has been given to groups on slides. Others have set it up on computer screens and web sites where people can take the test without using the physical cards.

 Szondi describes his test as an experimental method for revealing the psychologic effects of genes as they direct us in our spontaneous choice actions. Useful for therapists, teachers, occupational counselors and criminologists.

Susan Deri 'Introduction to the Szondi Test' (c) Grune & Stratton, NY, NY
Szondi, L: 'Schicksalsanalyse'. Basel, Bruno Schwabe, 1948. 
Szondi L. Experimental Diagnostics of Drives' 1952 Grune & Stratton NY, NY.
Szondi, Moser & all, 'the Szondi Test in Diagnostics' Lippencot CO. Pheledelphia?Momtreal

Legrand, Mitchel "Leopold Szondi his test and his doctrine.'(fn French),

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