Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Introductory material from 2008-9 Posts--Ego Unfolding

It is useful to to keep in mind that the Szondi Test is so constructed that in each of the four Vectors, the test filters out four settings that are of only one 'prong' as the decided choice. Reversing this phrase, another way of saying this opens. The test subject who makes this choice, has to do so by unconsciously avoiding what the other three prongs and their strivings represent in his personality, at that moment.

These are called unitendency settings, because (in this logic ) its strivings appear unrestrained, they are therefor easier to state as models of what a  particular group strivings, needs, impulses carry in respect to a particular Szondi Factor. Nevertheless, what is absent and exists only background is what permits a unitendency effect to occur. In a subject's earlier and later test profiles his passage to or from a unitendency may reveal his conflicts and compromises in respect to that part of his heredity sphere striving for expression.

Here we are focusing on mankind's uniquely developed Ego, as selected testologically and the unitendancies are, if exaggerated, the same as definitions of of man's functional mind pathology.

Unitendencies of the Ego [Sch]izophrine of Szondi. [k=facial photos of Catatonics] [p=facial photos of Paranoids.]

[k0 p+]

Unrestrained ego expansion, obsession by antithetic tendencies (ideas of grandeur, religiosity, etc. )

[k0 p-]

Unrestrained projection (delusions of persecution.)

[k+ p0]

Exaggerated greed for power, excessive introjection, egoism, egocentricity, narcissism, [functional] autism.

[k- p0]

Repression of the primative stiving antitheses, manipulating contradictions;potentials to; excessive negation, self-disparagement, self-depreciation.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 


Thursday, October 22, 2009

Szondi Analogs Development and DOMINANT Settings of the Ego

Szondi Analogs: Development and DOMINANT Settings of the Ego


Gen POP= 2237


[k0 p-] & [k+ p-]


[-0] [-+]Paths separate to dominant [k] or [p]




[0+] [±0] [+±] [-±]
"Like" affinities [k+] and [p+]
grow more freq-


[00] [±±] [k-!!]

AGED/ 65+

This is roughly based on the 'General Population, Hungary Pre-1944, its relivance is open to question. Yet it offers another way of looking at the question of distribution of Ego settings. Also, as soon as you look at definaable clinical or employment types various shifts of Ego settings is apparent and unexpected types appear. Szondi pointed out, ther is not one normal. but many.

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Demonstration of Szondi's Ego System Continued.


 To complete the demonstration as to the
difference  that just a change or the [p+] sign to [p-] the egovector settings just look at the change in striving that [k± p-] is inherent when that is the case.

  The setting [k± -] is the restless, variable ego sometimes paroxysmal, embedded in it are the ego possibilities:

      1. [k+ p-] (=an adult ego representing the narcissism and omnipotence.)    

  2. [k- p-] (=the drill ego, the repressed
average man's ego.)    

 3. [k±] (=both, introjection and repression.)

 4. [p-] (=unconscious projecting
of needs, fears and desires.)


At this point you may wish to object this is
getting more complex than you expected, regrettably, you would be correct. In fact if we shifted our demonstration to the [p±] and the [k+] and then [k-] as the opposed, a new series of differently directed strivings would emerge. We may do this demonstration in later in 
posts dealing with case  specific instances.


But for now, the point to be driven
home is; there is a natural order, we can filter it out, set
in terms of strivings. The strivings are identifiable by their special
characteristics which are those belonging to the psychiatric factor
from which it takes its name. For the ego, Szondi coded it
'Sch'.  Its functions are understandable from the
projected  unconscious, like and dislike of catatonia and
paranoid genotype photos.    



The Ego of many psychologists, teachers and other work-a-holics.

the standpoint of teaching the Szondi Test and making it relivant to the
probable reader here  it seems useful to examine the Ego
common to mind workers of all types psychologists, teachers etc.
the unfolding of
stage VI [k- p+] one cannot from the test findings alone demonstrate
the implied claims for the existence of some other regular age related
order beyond the stages stated by Susan Deri (SZ Intro’1949). 
 This new setting represented by the
reappearance of narcissistic/Inrojective striving, [k+], but now as
part of an ambivalent choice [k±], and when set against [p+]
works one way and when set against a [p-] works markedly different.

was found that the choice [k±p+] was more frequent with those work
addicted and those entering the psychology curriculum.  There
also other ego settings found most of which were those embedded within
the [k± p+] setting, such as:

  1.  [k-
    p+](=the compulsive ego), 
  2. [k+p+] (=the flooded
    endangered ego)
  3. [k±] (= both;  introjection and repression )
  4. [p+] (=rational
    obcessive strivings )

seems to suggest that the reappearance of a [k+] prong, (missing for
most since early childhood), thus forming a [k±]  was
to the person moving toward an adult stance, with new introjections now
directed to the selections  of  love mate choice, new
friendships, occupational choice.

This finding seemed also
useful as demonstration  element, in that, this new setting
represented by the reappearance of narcissistic/Inrojective striving,
[k+], but now
as part of an ambivalent choice [k±], and when set against
works one way and when set against a [p-] works markedly different. [k±
p-] Szondi had characterized as the 'paroxysmal ego' because of its
 sometimes connection to crimes of passion, a better
term might have been 'volatile ego' and has been found psychologists
and others with an  inclination to philosophic views.

The remarkable difference tells us of the powerful nature inherent in
the [p] paranoia factor and its outcome strivings.

some, (not all) the [k+] appears in puberty and grows markedly more
common in adolescence, reaching its peak, we estimate, [lacking good
data] in one out of five college attending young adults. Your editor’s
impression is, that this also represents what appears to be an
intentional, thus ‘will made’ shift to seeking new introjections and
fresh identifications.

This also corresponds to our knowledge of  [k+] clinical

is not to say that those not making a [k+] choices and stay [k-]
dominant, do not also introject important new ego-ideals and
internalized models, it is to say, that they do so on the bases of
largely unconsciously made accommodations and acquiescence to what is
directly available. Which is another way of phrasing ‘not will made”
and therefor what it is they introjected and maintain is mostly build
from the external demands and conditioning imposed on

This is an issue, which one usually associates with the
transition to adult stance and the new responsibilities that are

Noteworthy is, that those seeking a professional or
college enhanced education advance more efficiently when they introject
volitionally, new admired personal models, friends, teachers, leaders,
subject matter etc. As the introjected image serves in turn to direct
them to imitate and try to be their accepted role models.

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Szondi Ego Stages V and VI Mild Compulsive and Full Compulsive.

Stage V. [k- p0]

The Ego of 'successful repression', The mild compulsive Ego. The Ego of neurosis prone adults.

The generally smooth passage through latency seems remarkably that there was so much unrest before and then adjustment problems and various self-image distortions seemingly appearing out of nowhere once this stage is passed through has always puzzled parents and child psychologists alike. We do nor claim to have all the answers, but can report the Szondi testologic data as it is. Permitting you to form your own conclusions.

The minus k, open p constellation in the Sch Ego Vector is, together with the minus k, minus p, the most frequent constellation in children between the ages of nine and twelve, and continues to occur in many subjects during puberty and into adult life.

The obvious difference of this setting from the stage IV, [k- p-] is the absent [ p-] This lack indicates that the repressive strivings corresponding to the [k-] are therefor more effective. The Szondi empiric is when a Vector a decided choice pared with an avoidant (i.e. a no choice you have a uni-tendancy result by definition is an unbalanced striving situation, which in the case is the [k-] strivings and as the main striving in [k-] are one's to negation, acquiescing and repression. the importance of this finding is significant.

Children between nine and twelve years of age, and not particularly, neurotic children, who show mild compulsiveness. Children of this age are very likely to be exacting and pedantic in regard to details; some may for time be preoccupation with moralistic and religious problems which often relate more to the Szondi Paroxysmal/Affect Vector coded as capital (P) strivings []e+] or []e-] at that time entering awareness but ere also become an Sch Ego problem.

Many children in this age show an eagerness for factual knowledge and learning about the world in general which, by its persistence bears the characteristics of a compulsive drive. One well-known manifestation of this "drive to know" is the excessive amount of reading during prepuberty; reading about practically everything: love stories as well as books on science, or descriptions of far-away countries and travels. [Deri]

The conflict is due to the discrepancy existing between the newly acquired strength of the sexual impulses and the fact that the ego is still too weak to assimilate these needs on a more realistic level. This discrepancy results in the compulsive type of defense mechanism by which the child attempts to deflect his sexual curiosity into a general curiosity about the world. (This mechanism can lead to hobbies like stamp or coin collecting.) Yet even though this compulsive defense mechanism might be based on the same dynamic processes as are the symptoms of the compulsive neurotics, it cannot be called neurotic in the clinical sense of the term since there are very good realistic reasons why a child of this age cannot actually give way to his rising sexual drives. Thus, resorting to compulsive defense-mechanism, under these circumstances, can be considered an acceptable and realistic self-defense, indicating no particular tendency for neurosis at a later age. [Deri]

Adults whom yield the [k-p0] setting often end up with relationship problems because of their compulsive efforts to control others. They may find satisfaction in occupations which serve this purpose. [Clinical Empiric]

Whether or not these subjects seem successful in their work, they are often inhibited in their "private" emotional life. They are usually unable really to love because of their basic inhibition against allowing themselves to feel emotions at all. [Deri[

The age groups in which this constellation is frequent include first of all prepuberty, but also puberty and the beginning of adolescence. From adolescence on, the frequency of minus k, open p decreases gradually, and occurs least frequently in old age. On the basis of our findings, it appears that this mechanism of active repression is probably too energy-consuming for old age, when the use of the "opposite" ego mechanism, namely the open k, minus p, shows preponderance, this latter being a much more "natural" mechanism involving no effort on the part of the ego to inhibit the projection of one's needs into the environment. [Deri]

This Ego setting as the regular occurring one, one is not able to decide the issue of normal or neurotic, it being safer to say, there are many different normals. The next stage overwrites that viewpoint, in that its strivings generally associated with outcomes to strong as to make any claim of total normalcy dificult.

Stage VI. [k- p+]

The fully compulsive Ego. The common adult neurotic Ego. What enters awareness is hard to ignore. Hard headed adult.

In most cases, [k- p+] Sch setting follows [k- p0]. The interpretation corresponding to these two setting reflect a different situation within the Ego. The [k-] genic striving is mostly stripped of its introjective function and its Ego expanding power and repression appears as the main organizing aspect of the ego, and here the [k-] factor, fights against acceptance of the polar strivings now entering more directly awareness represented in the [p+] strivings. This is possible also an other way of saying instinctive pressures are seeking satisfaction by acting out and/or sublimation, socialization, occupation or symptom. These being in Szondi's view the result of ancestor set genic drives.

The personality characteristics in individuals giving [k- p0] and [k- p+] overlap in such features as the willingness to conform with expected social norms, and their devotion to control over themselves, over others and their environment.

This [k- p+] Ego setting one of a strong conflict situation in the ego common to late puberty and in adolescence.

The concept of sexuality has broken through barriers to consciousness, and children in late puberty and early adolescence enjoy talking about it. Their conversation, however, shows many mannerisms which border sometimes on compulsiveness. It seems as though they would attempt to dispel their deep-seated anxieties through the "magic" of the words. The discrepancy between their verbal "wordliness" and their actual awkwardness in many real life situations is considerable. adualistic stage) the child experiences his newly acquired ego as omnipotent, and does not perceive the limitations imposed by the environment.

In adults, this ego setting still refers to the same adolescent-like personality characteristics. It is given often by adults who are aware [p+]feel that they have not lived up to their denied expectations [k-].

Their level of aspirations are [p+] aware projected but are compulsively inhibited by their reparations[k-] which seems to them that their aspirations are always higher than their level of their achievement.

The corresponding feeling of failure is independent of the realistic value of their achievements or of their success as judged by their environment. For individuals with continuous [ k- p+] the characteristic trait is this feeling that whatever they have achieved is not enough. Some will drive themselves to extreme performances, and we note this setting is an embedded part of the work-a-holic Ego setting [k± p+] and have strivings that move in the same direction.

This is many times the beginning picture of patients who undergo psychoanalysis. Susan Deri see it as representing the fight between the superego and the id impulses and the behavior of these subjects is usually highly social and they consciously attempt to conform. However, the conforming behavior of these individuals is dynamically quite different from that of subjects with the "disciplined" ego (k- p-] as subjects with the "disciplined ego" do not experience the process of conforming as a burden. They take it as the most natural course of events, and do not experience their own contradictory tendencies until-occasionally-these tendencies break through in a crude form.

The distribution of [k- p+] ego-picture is fairly even among the various occupational groups. It as would be expected is found most frequently in compulsive neurotics. Also it is frequently found in psychosomatic and hypochondriac cases, which perhaps suggests that repression [k-] and [p+] or [p-] modes of projection plays some part in these disorders not yet fully explored.

The most characteristic age for Sch [k-p+] is late puberty and adolescence. Following these ages it decreases gradually in frequency. The explanation for this most probably hinges on the fact that this ego setting, because of the theoretical polar 'dissonance' this represents. (Szondi called a diagonal split.) We are justified in interpreting it as both representing a inner conflicting situations [k-] and over or exaggerated [p+] idealization of whatever aspects that enters awareness. (The term suggested is pseudo-obsession in the hypochondrical cases seems useful.)

When we speak of Sch Ego setting as occuring within 'Stages' it seems no longer appropiate when the appearance of specific diagnostic classifcations, or are rare or vague. Perhaps Susan Deri did not declare [ k± p+] to be Stage VII for some such reasons. Or perphaps adolescene, and its aberations are so common as to be considered a normal disorder. One, characrerized by hormonal. psychological, physical charges, each potentially upsetting some of the earler system balances.
[k± p+]
Along with the change the many (not every) adolesent, starts to like the genic line [p] parnoid photos that he disliked throughout his childhood and in doing so begins to rationalize everthing with an aware and often verbal process and sometimes obcessional manner.

This being more or less the opposite of the [p-] mode of unconscious out-shifting used throughout most of childhood and sometimes 'comfortable[p] strivings ]greyed out or not accessable that avoiding the [p]genic line photos represents.

This [p+] is accompanied by a partial shift to liking of [k] genic line photos which suggests a return of narcissism, and also some of the strivings to restlessness that once belonged to the earlier, Stage III, [k± p-] which partially reasserts with [k±]. This may now call with some justification, the "Adolescent type" of narcissism. Later when gross adult narcissism is the focus of our test findings, we might say narcissism is narcissism, but that it plays out differently at different times in a persons life trajectory.

Monday, August 24, 2009

[Un-offical Stage VII ] Adolecent Ego Firming Up, Dawn of the Adult Stance.

[Un-offical Stage VII ] Adolecent Ego Firming Up, Dawn of the Adult "Work-a-holic".
[k± p+]
In our discussion of the previous Sch settings, the [k- p0] and [k- p+], are the ones strongly characteristic for adolescents, we note the next presentation of typical stages of ego development raises more questions than we can anwer from our testing research alone. Here we show the youths dressing down to be 'cool' and accepted by their peers and at the same time separating themselves from their parents. They know very well the next moment they will act out some imagined but obsessive (adolescent narcissistic [k± p+] image of adult life, ones that are often well beyond their competency to carry through without conflict resulting. Some faced with too great of resistance or some untoward result may regress to earlier Ego stages and consequently use 'less adult' modes of self-management. Adult stance seldom happens until one is an adult. If then the Ego setting regularizes, the setting, one recurring, stable, then the complex one of the compulsive work-a-holic may take command.

In respect to the readers of this blog, this Ego setting [k± p+] carries all the strivings as 'active' which our data show as most concentrated in the mind worker occupations, teachers, psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers. The persons most interested in exploring the verbal-symbolic in themselves and others. Work addiction and willful insertion of themselves obsessional. Embedded in this setting are 1) [k+p+] The obsessional Ego, 2) The full compulsive Ego [k- p+] and the simultaneous strivings, introjection [k+] and repression [k-] There exists in every tri-tendancy setting, (a three pronged striving cluster in our Szondi jargon) that when under sufficient stress may 'invert' to the absent prong [here p-] and therefor the strivings represented by [p-] become the active portion of the Ego. In some, it can be a momentary flash of paranoia, but in others it can last for longer periods, or in the worst case scenario, mark the beginning of a clinical paranoid fate.

Sunday, August 23, 2009

Szondi Ego Stage IV, [k- p-] 'Little men little women" appear.

Stage IV. [ k- p-]

With the appearance of subjects who dislike both components of the Szondi 'Sch' Ego, at the same moment in time. This generally occurring when such subjects enter school, and begins getting used to a regularized but partial separation from their parents and other caretakers, This occurring along with submission to others who demand they begin a submission to the learning environment. They are expected to be toilet trained, have the rudiments of speech, and be able to relate with the other children and to attend to the teacher without paroxysmal events derailing the process. Which in today's schools is a carefully organized process.

As students of the Szondi Test, our actual test findings come first, the clinical empirics, if known, second and only then can we see for ourselves enough to attempt to reconcile our findings with our theories.

Why, we ask, does a 6 year old, who cannot possibly understand what the genic types of our reagent photos represent, who just a year before liked and same time disliked the [k] gene type photos, now start to only dislike them and show [k- p-], And only a few will start to like paranoid gene line, [p] photos until they are past age 7? In addition, some appear to never at any age, to like the [p] photos.

Stage IV, Disciplined Ego (Sometimes called 'Drill' Ego to reflect the externally imposed aspect.) Suggested also is "Little men and little women Ego (most of whom behave well.)"

[k- p- is the ego picture of the child whose ego has been "successfully" broken down by the overwhelming strength of the imposition. The setting's first appearance as the most frequent Sch setting, occurs at approximately the age of schooling, and remains the leading configuration, among the sixteen possible variations that exist within the Szondi Test for the Sch Vector, through all the age groups.

This means that the most frequently used ego-dynamism throughout life, in an unselected general population, corresponds to that of the "broken-in" six year old child, who, on the basis of experience, has discovered that the adult reward and punishment impositions are stronger than he, and that non-conformity does not work well. (One theory of psychoneurosis is some non-conforming desires forcibly suppressed, early in life are not really given up, but repressed, lie unconscious and cause symptoms later in life.)

Since we cannot actually test infants, but we can reconstruct it theoretically from the manner in which changes in the Sch vector reflect the observable process through which the child deals with life and comes to accept reality.

The observations as presented by Susan Deri are:

I First the adualistic stage, [k0 p-] which corresponded to the complete lack of differentiation between baby person and environment; i.e., the two were experienced as a continuous unit.

II. Then came the dualistic stage [k+ p-], Here the [k] component we assume indicates the emergence of the Ego, the first feelings of being an entity separated from the environment. At this stage, however, the child still feels lt self as omnipotent because, instead of total dependence on a formless environment, objects become recognized as such, Freud believes the infant at his state can hallucinate for short term satisfaction characteristics of any of these need-objects himself or it can cry and rage to force change,

III. There follows, the stage of the breaking down of the omnipotent infant [k+] narcissism strivings. The change represented by a [k-] appearing, making the [k] have minus component. as in a sense, then ambivalent, [k±].

The [k±] arrival was the first indication of recognition of the limitations of one's own ego. A first recognition limited view of that real force that impact him comes from the objects and persons of the environment. The result was a restless paroxysmal behavior, assumed to correspond to the child's unconscious wish to escape the limitations (by now recognized) using its own power. This is the intermediate stage of half-narcissism and half-acceptance of reality. [Deri]

IV. There then appears the [k- p-] configuration, in which now the lack of [k+] strivings shows that [k+] strivings for omnipotence and automatic introjective have been given up nearly completely. and [k-] strivings (negation and repression) have become active. This could be called the stage of the disciplined ego. Again, it is an open question whether the willingness to submit oneself to discipline is brought about by education (its imposition forces) or the more "natural" growth process or whether it is the result of both factors.

The age at which [k- p-] first appears as the most frequent Sch setting coincides with the age at which children's behavior becomes a child level version of realistic. (Little men, little women, not yet really so.) Alternatively, in a satire it might be that “the little wild horses are broken.”

When this occurs it is observable the fantasy play and "make-believe" are given up almost completely, replaced by provided ready made 'story' material, books, movies, video games etc. There is also a noticeable reduction in the amount of physical activity for the sheer pleasure of physical motion.

Children's games at this stage become more organized and goal-directed, and achievement recognition over the burning of energy becomes the more pronounced aim. Children between six and nine are also at an age at which they become increasingly interested in factual knowledge and in learning to manipulate real objects. One could say that this age group is actual object orientated and not ego-oriented.

Children and adults who yield the Sch [k- p-] act according to their most unsatisfied need and strivings yet are unaware of these underlying sources of motivation. Later by our experimental test findings we will attempt to prove this assertion against what we can attribute to strivings belonging to the other settings not belonging to the Szondi Sch Vector but to the other three heredity spheres, each also built as gene bound reciprocal psychiatric named types.

Ego setting, [k- p-] is empirically associated with the lack of psychological insight although many with it seem to function well and show good practical intelligence. It is the Ego setting most frequently in all age groups from six years on.

It should be noted here that the appearance of the high frequency of this ego-picture coincides with the developmental phase at which we assume the child has gone beyond the actuality of the first Oedipal period and enters latency.

Since we have discovered that this is the most common Sch reaction in the unselected adult population, we also must assume:

1) The latency period is a point of fixation strongly favored for a great number of adults.

2) Accord a great number of adults must have psychologic characteristics similar to those of children from six to nine years old.

3) [k- p-] in the clinically symptomless population-is given primarily by those subjects who are extremely realistic, "down to earth" individuals. These are the people for whom "a spade is a spade"; that is, the people by whom the world is perceived and accepted at face value. They are overwhelmed by concrete objects and by reality to such an extent that there is no psychic energy left for introspection. Ego processes as such are not cathected; the person is occupied with solving what to him seem to be "real" problems, and he often considers preoccupation with one's own needs and psychologic welfare to be a ridiculous waste of time. [Deri]

Among the various occupational groups, this Sch con-figuration is found most frequently among the non-intellectual occupations. It is most frequent (approximately 50 per cent) in the group comprising physical laborers, less frequent in business occupations, and is quite rare in professions involving intellectual sublimation. Of all professional groups, it occurs with probably least frequency in psychologists and psychiatrists. The low frequency of the configuration in this group is to be expected since it is comprised of professions which specialize in exactly those problems which most subjects with [k- p-] consider no problems at all.[Deri]

It is worth while to mention an apparent contradiction in the findings that on one hand [k- p-] is the prototype of the disciplined and conforming ego, while its pathologic significance relates to the most antisocial forms of pathology, in psychoses as well as among the various forms of criminality. Most the data on criminology that is here accessible are outdated and in German, but still worth discussing as teaching examples.

Saturday, August 22, 2009

Szondi study grouo Stage III With Stage III things grows more complex with Ego growth.

Stage III, Szondi's "Paroxymal Ego" or "restless kids".

With Stage III things grows more complex and if forward Ego growth is sufficiently frustrated then our testological data supports the concept that children at times fall back to some of its older baby-like Ego modes.
This regressive quality seems clear to us when adults act childishly emotionally using aspects that are paroxysmal in form, Crying, trembling, hitting, kicking stomping and whining, stuttering, etc. Often associated with such displays is also a testing out what the limits are that they can go to in order to get their way about something.

This Sch-picture is found most frequently in children between four and seven years of age. The frequency of this ego picture in adults is about a third of that in children. (About 4 per cent as against 12 per cent.) [Deri]

Despite the growing child's occasional regressions (perhaps as a combination biologic growth and developing learning skills) almost every person completes the passage through states III and on to IV, V, without budging from [p-] as its mode of projection, and usage in participation with others and its world.
[p-] the Szondi interpretive empirics 'reads' as one who uses unconscious projection as its main mode of reaching to and finding satisfaction of its needs outside itself.
The [p+] mode of using mainly conscious modes of projection (abcent here) as far as we can determine does not appear (with a few exceptions) until latency (range usually 7 to 10) and grows more common with puberty and high school age and even then, it is found in far fewer than the majority who still stay [p-]. This attracts our attention because [p+] we, from empiric observations adds support for the belief that [p+] is a marker of potential for 'rational' self censoring and verbal image use. In addition, at the same time, represents an opening of a path to obsessional disorders.

Of course, to say that these Sch configurations correspond to any particular developmental stages or clinical association is arbitrary, but useful for us to archive a general overview that can permit us to more easily recognize actual test findings that do or do not fit such "Stages" as preconceived. This is a reminder that no one knows everything in this difficult to explore field and all we think we know may not explain all the possibilities of any specific case.
Nevertheless, our rank order numbers aid us to indicate the approximate succession of expected ego-development.
On the basis of our findings, we are justified in saying that in 4 or 5 year olds, State III, (growing uncommon by age 7), that [k± p-] more often follows the childish narcissism stage of [k+ p-] than does a move to the completely minus [k-] which belong to the next two stages [k- p0], [k- P+].

According to Susan Deri, in a relatively short time span, the characteristic Ego [k±p-]] appears as one of the four most frequent Sch configurations in four year olds; and in the group of five year olds we find it as having doubled its frequency.

Susan Deri goes on to attribute the sudden increase of this ego-picture in this median age 5 group as "corresponds to the children's increased reality testing, or in psychoanalytic terminology, it indicates the increasing power of the reality principle over the pleasure principle."

"This means that the child has already discovered not only that he and the environment are two different things (transition from the adualistic (stage I) to the dualistic (stage II) but also that the environment is something one has to adjust to, at least to some extent, and at some times (transition from stage II to stage III). In stage III, the child is still able to indulge in his fantasy-plays; in collectively modified game and reading exercises...however they no longer have the same substitute value for reality as they did in the previous stage. "
"..The mechanism of projecting any fantastic wish onto others (k+,p-) no longer works as well, as it worked before as the child is much more aware and remembers has better awareness than previously what is just pretend, what is real and what triggers hostility and punishment and fails to satisfy its wishes. In this it almost seems as if they would educate themselves for testing reality."

"Whether this change in their relationship to themselves and to the world has been brought about by having been subjected to parental and other environmental "powers," or whether the change is based more on some sort of an indigenous "law" of development, can not be determined; at least not on the basis of our test data. "

"The fact is that their behavior as well as their test profiles shows that something drastic is happening at this age in regard to their relationship to reality."

"The ambivalence in regard to whether they should still attempt to free themselves from the limitations of the realistic world, or give in and adjust to the limitations as unavoidable, is reflected in the [k±] factor."

"On the other hand, the fact that they are still children living out their needs in play and education directed simulations yet done without being aware of what these needs really are, is in the test shown by the continued [p-] "

The characteristic physical signs of restlessness of children's and the adults equivalent led Szondi to speak of [k±p-] as being the, "Ego paroxysmal".
[Children in this "in-between" stage of Ego-development are extremely active and restless physically; they are constantly "on the go," climbing, running, bicycling, etc. We assume that the driving force for this restlessness derives its intensity from the child's unconscious wish to free himself from the restraints of reality through activity rather than through the fantasy of the younger child.
In any age group, [k± p-] is characteristic of subjects who are consciously fighting for the freedom of their egos, who, on the one hand rebel against external laws, and on the other hand, do not dare to ignore these laws. [Deri]


1. Symptoms of restlessness at the physical as well as at the psychologic level. They like to change their environment, enjoy occupations involving travelling, enjoy changing their group of friends and sometimes even their type of work or profession.
2. People with this ego setting, feel driven by undefinable forces and crave for change in general.
3. In some, their behavior often seems inconsistent not only to the onlooker, but to themselves.
4. They can feel dissatisfied in any situation, which seems to imply stability, but are unable to give rational reasons for their dissatisfaction.
5. Some may due to their wish to conform, may drive themselves into exactly such situations which imply submission to some sort of rules and limitations, and from which they then, seek to escape.
6. The pathologic implications of this Sch configuration refer to various forms of 'paroxysmal symptoms'.
7. Even the relatively well-adjusted subjects in this Stage III category, can best be described as paroxysmal individuals, because of their psychomotor as well as their physical restlessness.
8. The pathologic manifestations of the Ego setting called /paroxysmal/ by Szondi, when reinforced by certain setting in the Paroxysmal Vector (The Vector should not be confused with the Ego setting.) may result in excessive drive or conflict involve a wide range of possible symptoms from real epileptic grand-mal seizures to stuttering.
9. [k± p-], is found in certain types of antisocial adults, often the unstable vagrant.
10. Sudden bursts of obsessional thinking [k0 p+] (We believe this is brief or so transient it is seldom is found in our test data, but was reported as significant in the subject's symptom history).
1. Truancy from school, or in running away from home. These are the usual reasons why one finds so many children who are sent to the juvenile court giving this particular reaction in the Sch Vector. -[Deri]
2, Hyperactivity? As used in today's classification system? Not researched.
3. Attention deficit? [You would have to include some other various Sch settings and other impulse disorders to assert this.] - Not researched, but likely connected with significance in some specific cases,

Friday, August 14, 2009

Stage II. [The beginning of a functional Ego-"The self forms."

The Ego Stages as reflected in the Szondi Test. "The Ego is your steering device."

The Unfolding of the Ego.

Normally, Ego development takes place according to a detailed six stage schema as proposed by Susan Deri, "Introduction to the Szondi Test" [Grune & Strattion, N.Y. 1949. Her order is followed here, but the charactizations are arbitrarily revised into capsulizations, for our study purposes.

1. (k0 p-)

Adualism: The indistinction between the ego and the other (up to one year). [See J. Paiget ] [In the adult it is called the 'paranoid Ego' and an indication of a regressive thought mode.

2. (k+ p-)

Childish Omnipotence: The magical-autistical omnipotence (pre-oedipian period). [See Melanne Kline's, not so benign view of infancy.] [See, J. Lacan," Mirror Phase"]

3. (± -)

Beginning accomidation, turbulence, resistance. (First Oedipian Separations) [See Winnicot ] [See Toilet Training, Early Care Takers.] [The "Restless Ego" of many talented Adults.]

4. (- -)

Aceptance, accomidation (The pressure to conform and the social rewards, the latency period. [The Drill Ego of Adults-Suggesting that many never fully go beyound this mode of Ego development.]

5. (- 0) If aceptance and accomidation is successfil, the start of adolescence the young person may then try to replicate that which was accepted earler ['The Mild Compulive Ego' when found in profiles, one or two decades later. ]

6. (- +)

Adolescence. Mating impluse asserts on several levels and the desire previously repressed reaches consciouness backed by the newly aquired physical ability to do so. That this will meet with many set backs and frustrations, awell known feature of passing through adolesence. For many it will be the first serious Ego failure and the overwhelemed Ego may move to a kind of grid lock crises [k± p±] or what seems like a tunning off of thinking and feeling [k0 p0], or some will move back to older Ego settings with which they feel more secure however childish it may seem. Many show an appearance of [k+] and as well an awareness of depression [d+] as they restart a new search for fullfillment. In adults it is the 'Fully compulsive Ego'.


For us as students of human nature, we ask what is it beyond this theorical passage of the Ego that will address our desire to understand the larger issues and concerns in respect to ultimate behaviour? What can we by this Szondi Test thatoffers insight in those humans who develop atypical or outright abnormal forms of existance?

The best answer I can offer now is, we can recast almost everything you previoully believed to be psychologically caused, in the Szondi coding system, but our new metaphors also leave many who's and why's awaiting anwers. The metaphors of the settings, and the strivings and what they represent are crafted from the unconscious choices by tested persons. This is done without extracting a verbal inventory, in fact you need not even speak the language of the tested subject, as long is he follows the choice procedure correctly.

We sincerly hope your nerve structures are shaping up to accept and start building your Ego, and sarting at Zero, it is a passage every human has to make.

Let us go back to our test subject who yield this Ego setting now-(no longer an infant but perhaps a young adult has in his unconscious choice making [it is unconscious because he being tested without knowing what the reagent photos means and how choices will be interpreted by his test administrator or later by a 'blind to the case history reader', for validation.

[k0 p-] means this subject's choice making at this time avoids the [k] (Genetic line: Catatonic photos) is taken to be as if, an analog of that part of his Ego which is '[k]' in its striving nature. At the same time, he chooses as dislike '[p]' (Genetic line Paranoid). We know from empiric and clinical studies that this dislike of the [p] photo type belongs to those who out-shift their needs and strivings with little rational censorship (and jumping ahead the [p], photos, if liked, represents rational censoring and that would be one, who rationally lives out of their needs and strivings.)

The [p-] component when existing as set with [k0] then its strivings effects are magnified, as it represents an absence of the balance that choices [k+], [k-] or [k±] would have represented,when the [p] has a decided direction.

[k] genic line photos corresponds to the " narcissistic reservoir" of earlier developed introjected love objects and subsequent modifications whose influence lingers as a bridge to the persons in later life. Here in the case of [k0 p-] they are lived out by "immediate" projection. By "immediate" we mean that needs are satisfied so promptly that the subject is not even aware of the process through which he projected the presence of his needs, into the environment. He has no awareness of having given such signals to the necessary object for the need-gratification and the need transfer seems to form automatically. This can range from useful harmless projections or when severely unbalanced, represent major pursuit delusions characteristic of the paranoid mind sick. For your study, you are reminded that all such things are on a continuum and you don't jump to radical opinions, unless all the related facts support such an opinion and you are qualified to make such a judgement.

In discussing the later stages of ego-development, we need to mention the degree to which actual environment and reality reality-testing, shapes the settings of the Ego.

A person cannot use for themselves an Ego setting greater than the most superior one they experienced in their past development process. ( A point often forgotten) In many cases,under stress and pressures, internal and external; the effect of the pressure is usually indicated by an Ego shift to setting characteristic of earlier modes of adjustment.

The Sch setting [k0 p-] under discussion in this view is clearly one of a weak and child like modes of thinking, feeling and acting. Often when physically ill, we see the most superior of persons act like children.

The term adualistic, or lack of dualism between subject and object, has been borrowed from observations of J. Piaget who uses the term to characterize the primitive state of undifferentiating between the child and the rest of the world. This is the stage at which the child "thinks" that the whole world feels as he does. Pain is experienced not as something personal, but as something experienced everywhere: the rest of the world "hurts" too. He does not know the realistic limits of his body; for example, there is no difference between his relationship to his own toe and his relationship to his crib. Although this primitive, real confusion disappears rather early in life. The differentiation being prompted by frustrations-much of this primitive animistic thinking can be observed in very young children. In addition, it can be observed in primitives and in certain psychotics.

Yet, some adults in processes of artistic creativity may hold regularly to this setting and even some in scientific thinking. Some appear to able to turn it on when they need it. Some as is well known, seek aspects and qualities that once belonged to their own childhood Ego settings, by using drugs and alcohol, which may short term be useful to them, but long term works against them.

There are occasions on which one just "feels" something is true. These "mystical" feelings are typically functions of the [k0 p-] constellation, and are brought about by means of unconscious projection. Some can rationalize ‘logical’ explanations for these [p-] intuitive insights or any misperceptions with ease.

Individuals with [k0 p-], when they show no symptoms of pathology-are extremely sensitive in their reactions and to environmental conditions. Here we see it as representing by the k0] as a weak ego or regressive setting. Although many may react sensitively to subtle outward signals of the unconscious of other individuals, and strike up relations with others easily, nevertheless, because of their lack of conscious insight and ability to activate the [k] powers they often appear unable to follow consistently their keen intuitions.

Before you jump to the conclusion that it is always pathological or always healthy, you need to be aware that for some this influence of the unconscious instinctive prompting can result in certain positive forms of sublimated activity, socialization and occupational usage, or its negative forms self-destructive perverse and criminal.

Generally, when this ego-setting is consistently found, it is in subjects whose work does not involve any form of artistic or intel-lectual sublimation, but whose occupation is strictly on the level of simple task physical activities, which in turn they blame on others, the system, ect.

However noting that there can be exceptions, its appearance in the profiles of the maladjusted, the criminal or the regressing adult should warn one that further investigation into all the facts is needed.

This Ego settings and the next one, [k+ p-] are seldom found in adjusted adolescents or young adults, as they are still capable of using their best Ego setting for their life situations.

Stage II. [The beginning of a functional Ego-"The self forms." [k+] with [p-] We theorize that at the end of infancy along with the cortical development needed to walk. talk, and conform to the toilet training and the first separation -dependency crises. That, in this passage (most observers would agree) an early Ego seeks to assert itself. One that emerges with increasing power to act on its own against the demands to act within parental constraints. Because of the reality of its near total psychological and material dependency, he surrenders in time, to what is demanded. Here we go even more theoretical, (loosely extending this. In early childhood the [k+] suggest already the child is using its introjective power to imitate, borrow and repeat clues from others as to satisfy its desires and security needs. As it does so, it bit by bit gives up parts of its earlier infantile omnipotence. In which he saw himself as the center of existence. The results of which, can be conflicted and may be maintained into adult life. [The basis of one theory of causation of the neurosis.] When we can actually start using the experimental test on three year olds, and older, we assume the introjective power is one of the key features that shows that the child has been launched into speech and learning and will usually move on, when entering school to a more powerful Ego control form. In our testological schema frequently, [k± p-]. [k±p+] and for some [k-p-] or [k-p+] as the world seems to separate into people [k] genic and those [p] genic, Most maintaining the dominant strivings for the rest of the course of their lives. On the bases of our experimental test we may decide the principal striving issues, of the Ego setting [[k+ p- ] as we did with the paranoid genic strivings backward linked to the clinical empirics known to be part certain neurotic and psychotic symptom complexes, particularly ones with symptom features very similar to the childhood modes of thinking, feeling and acting. Part of what we said of [k0 p-] also applies to [k+ p-] The major difference is the child has gained some control over its perceptions. The issue of the quality of the control gained, arises when we look at the test findings of specific groups.
Child. In children this setting coinciding with the use of the word "I" as reference to themselves. And "I want-" And a desire in play act out snippets what they see as possibilities for themselves. Being in play, Little mothers, daddies, teachers, soldiers, cow boys flyers, car, ship and air plane. This is universally encouraged in most child rearing cultures.
Adolescent. In adolescents and young adults [k+p-] may reappear following a time when a different Ego setting existed. We assume this event represents a mode of dealing with sexual strivings and ending of family dependency issues. For many the issue of being or finding their own self, emerges intermingled with occupational choice, love preferences and symptom formation.
Adult Narcissistic It maintenance in adult life can be understood as parallel attitude to that of child's reaction against accepting the limitations of reality and his fight to preserve some degree of the infantile omnipotence where; " I and my needs are all that is important."
Sociopath Criminals. Certain sociopath criminals show regularly this setting, some appear to by their own desire or by the assistance of drugs and alcohol, to assume this Ego setting prior to their criminal destructive acts. Unfortunately, we cannot in every such person tested, after the fact, demonstrate what the dynamics existed at the moment of the event. When in a jail environment the reaction formation may in some cases mobilize their defenses and our tests shows an ordinary person, looking for a way out of his predicament.

Monday, August 10, 2009

While there is logic in calling the directing mental force of the mankind species, his Ego or his Will.

While there is logic in calling the directing mental force of the mankind species, his Ego or his Will. Although immediately the question arises about translating of the German 'Ego' into English as 'Will' or just use 'Ego' for psychology study as that which spans the concept. This later choice was almost universally taken psychoanalysis. Those psychologies seeking to distance themselves from Freudian views, substituted, selves, powers, levels and other invented terms to cover the same ground. There is nothing wrong in this, in fact it may advance our thinking on certain particulars. This practice however leads the student to believe he is obligated to stick to one teacher's view even after leaving that teacher's sphere of influence.

Enter now, the schema of the Ego offered by Leopold Szondi. (Psychiatrist, University professor, and Genealogist,) who by decades of testing individuals, as found various population, where subjects normal and others clinically differentiated were used to fill in the sixteen various possibilities in each of the four heredity spheres that his invention permitted. The Szondi Test filtered out findings by a projected (Szondi believed to be 'genic' conditioned) affinity. The findings had to explain the known clinical facts. The findings when correctly read back to a reader unaware of the facts "blind", i. e., gender, age and occupation, then had to describe generally and diagnostically correctly that person. This procedure being done in much the the same manner as had been done with the Rorschach Test, which Szondi and his co-workers were quite familiar with at the time.
We focus here specifically on Szondi's new Ego examples, as artificially separated from the other three heredity spheres also called 'Vectors' The one's that the Ego [Sch] must mediate. This includes aspects both conscious and unconscious.
Szondi does not call it forthright the 'Ego Vector' he sets it 'schizophrene' and codes 'Sch'. It is build of the two gene lines, which normally balance each other, (Catatonia and Paranoia) which are capable of shifting this balance within certain limitations. These limitations set the manner that an individual uses his Ego to handle his impulses, needs and strivings, all generated by the basic impulses. One can assume the basic impulses are more or less the same as what populates Freud's Id and their censor the Super-Ego. (later we will seek to demonstrate from variously analyzed test series that, the Szondi Ego, his, 'Sch' is the rational component of a larger censorship system. This requires including aspects of Szondi's Paroxsmal/Affect '[P]' Vector to be then examined under 'The Profile Middle' term.

The The Sch constellation [k0 p-] under discus­sion now really should be termed the "pre-ego stage" and, with reference to its place in ego-development, logically should be given the rank number zero rather than 1. Yet we are used to referring to this setting as the first stage and designate it as the "adualistic" stage of the ego, which in fact means that there is no ego in the usual psychological sense of the concept.

Thursday, July 30, 2009


[ Szondi Teachings]



In Szondi's view each Factor, is modeled after a psychiatric condition, that has in its nature an inherent drive that seeks satisfaction. Each may be viewed as also being a basic (every human has) needs and strivings. These needsl/strivings belonging to the nature of specific Szondi defined psychiatric types. The function of the Szondi Test is to filter out the type and their relative strienghts, by the like and dislike of the test material which consists of reagent quality facial photos. The (gene/ancestor set) reagent quality of these photos, acts to cause a subject to like or dislike them depending on some unconscious setting of his drives at the time the test was made. The results representing a mirror of the relative power or attraction of such drives and needs for the tested person. This is somewhat different than what happens in other projective tests commonly used in psychological testing, as they are based on other processes, for example the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, uses an entirely different probing method, and as reesult filters out somewhat different aspects of the tested subject's personality/ The amorphous blot forms images with certain qualities rather than the selected relative affinities across the eitht of psychiatric types.

Keep in mind that non-clinical cases have only general type relation to the clinical examples, Nevertheless the Szondi named psychiatric conditions become our measuring stick and our navagation tool for our personality studies. This structured schema also sets it outside of most of today's accepted psychological systems.

THIS IS IS AS CONTRUCTED BY YOUR EDITOR, WHO IS TO BLAME FOR ANY ERRORS And things Szond'i never would have said this way




Reagent Photo: [h] Male homosexual. strongly overloaded with feminine characteristics.

1. Need for personal affection, (varies from simple friendly impulses to the Eroto-manias and cravings of love. Associates generally with tenderness and feminine modes of thinking.



Reagent Photo: [s] Sadistic perpetrator.

2. Need for activity, assertion, (varies from enjoyment of starting the day to mental and physical activities to hardness and actual events tinged with sadism. Associates with hardness and masculine modes of thinking.



Reagent Photo:[e] Epileptics in inter-paroxsmal over-controlled phase.

Need for Control of Emotions. (Varies in amounts of control and related ethical restrains, from reasonable practical to moments over enrolled to that under-controlled and good thinking/behaving nature shutting off. Here tendencies to being 'Good Abel' or polar to the envious hateful 'Cain' may assert, depending on the compromises available to be used.



Reagent photo :[hy] Need to show emotional and self displaying aspects of self.

Need to show on self, to be admired and to express ( varies from shyness, tactful showing of desire for attention to strong exhibitionistic acts or desires.



Reagent Photo:: [k] Narcissistic self-contained Catatonics..

Need to include in the mind-image index certain signifiers of 'what and who I believe I am'. This varies from a usable and adaptive self-space to Narcissistic isolations where the self is far more important than others.)



Reagent Photo: [p] Paranoids in the clinical state of over projection out shifting of repressed desires,

Need to participate, to find mental and emotional satisfying ways of unfolding ones needs, strivings, and inclinations.

(varies from satisfactory balanced rational and effective modes of adjustment that can in some become over rationalistic or turn to projected forms of blaming of others or even as to move one to the borders of paranoia.)



Reagent Photo: [d] depressives,

Need for 'Objects' with bonding Power (Here objects means those persons or things that when the are lost to you it is painful, and literally depressing. These can be small things, big things, money things or minor or major loved persons. Mood depressive when any such specially-keyed type bond is threatened with ending dependency connections and aspects similar to those found in the 'anal phase, as described by K. Abraham.



Reagent Photo: [m] Manics,
Need for object dependency as and enjoyment seeking manic phase cases. problematics resembling the problematic of the oral phase; ( Psychoanalyst, Karl Abraham.)

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

The Szondian Ego

The constraints of the Szondi Test, filters out sixteen possible Ego's or Ego positions, if the Ego is conceived as largely built from the articulation of the two contrasting psychiatric strivings, 'schizophrene', Catatonia and Paranoia. Before you reject this notion, you need to see how well it works in practice.

"Fateanalytic psychology has expanded outward the boundaries of ego concepts further beyond the recognized circumstances of the Freudian double concept of "ego and superego" and beyond the Jungian terms "ego and self."

"Ego-Analyse" (1956)(C)Hans Huber, Berne// L. Szondi


Szondi's Ego psychology long hidden in the German texts and any would be investigator was advised not to waste his time on anything so stupid as the Szondi Test and some of the Hungarian Professor's (some said) differebt id not peculiar theories.

As one follows Szondi's logic and tests it himself, most who are willing to go that far will begin to see there is more than unbridled speculation and generalization. There is a logical schematic core. The finds of the experimental test built it theories and then the theories organized themselves into an array, with similarities to the early table of periodic elements introduced by the Russian researcher, Mendeleev, who's chart by analog located the chemical elements, in such a way that certain elements, although rare or transient chemical existence were predicable, and with later technology detected.

  • The Ego (that which we think of as our" self", is according to Szondi defined by its four functions. Each these functions can be extended in other contexts as the Ego servers uniquely in humans, as to bridge and moderate all of a person's instinctual strivings by use of symbols and language. These functions have free interaction and balance for their proper function.

  • [k+] Introjection.

  • [k-] Repression.

  • [p+] Rational participation.

  • [p-] Unconscious projection.

The Ego is represented by the opposing ego disorers "schizophrene" in human inheritance and therefor coded [Sch] in the Szondi Psychogram. The like and dislike of [k] and [p] reagent photos, (The Szondi Test ensemble) permits 16 possible combinations. Each believed to represent a persons Ego situation at the time he takes the test. A large amount of study has been made demographic and clinical to give meaning to a person’s sometimes steady and sometimes changing Ego related choices. For example tests pf persons in a state of mental crisis was often found to have, [k± p±] that is a same time like and dislike in both arms of the [k] and [p] factors. While a person regressing in mental strivings begin to show Ego patterns characteristic of childhood, such as;[k0 p-] or [k+ p-]

You can take a free Szondi Test for your own self study. I you join our study group.

Thursday, July 23, 2009

This chart aims at explaining "Uni-tendancy".

Image 2

This chart aims at explaining "Uni-tendancy".

These are most useful for study because the exageraged strivings stand out clearly.

It is always represents a special drive type. One in which a tested person unconsciously avoids one factor- and at the same moment, makes a like (red) or dislike (blue)in its companion Szondi factor

Here, the avoidance factor is charted as one photo liked and one dislike. In some cases the avoid reaction is so strong, no choice at all fills in. A chice of 1 photo kind as like and 1 as dislike is for our logic process considered as 'avoidant' 'null' or 'open', the terms are interchangeable. When the open has a compaion factor of 2 or more of the SZ photos as the like or dislike, then a uni-tendancy exists, Because of the contrast generated they are useful for our study.

Avoidance choices are sometimes called 'null' or 'open' reactions. and coded [0] as in [h0 s+] in the Sexual sphere. [h0 s+ would be read as a unitendancy towards those strivings inherent in the Sadistic/agressive drive.

The open ones are believed to represent an unconscious loss of of 'genic' valence or drive type power and therfore represent a directional shift drive power to its innate companion factor, amplifing that the impulses defined as the like [+] or dislike [-] direction.

For example in the Contact/Object Vector: The well known Manic drives [m]is always registered relatively against the depressive drives [d]

This permits a coding that is readable and which permits a descriptive reading to be made as repesenting an unconscious made, self-description.(This projection aor self-decription is the very essence of both the experimental test and the theories built on it. The thoeries collectivly are called Fateanalysis. As over tme how a person's drives unfold determines the psychovancelogical adaptive fate he ends with. Thus criminology, sociology and various culture effects have relivance as well.It can be in the hands of specialists be useful for diagnosis and therapy.

In each of the four Heredity Spheres, called 'Vectors' there are four uni-tendancies possible, which means 16 uni-tendancies have to be learned in order to have the key organizer for study of its theory and to have worable alfabet to use to understand goals and outcomes of the impulses of humans.

Szondi Psychograms are the equivalent of a spectroscoptic view, Here is a type of suicidal pattern.

new This psychogram decribed by Hungarian vocational psychologist, F. Meri, it reflects a person poised on the verge of suicide. Not every suicidal person will show this profile, as there are several other paths to that fate. Nevertheless, it presents aspects of the suicidal desire in a spectrographic form.

(Ranked here by probable lack of satisfaction.)

[p] Ego/participation 30% =blocked, 4 or 5 choices set ambivalent [±]

[h]need/ Eros =40% [4+ choices] Bodily and social love failure.

[m] bond need 40% [4- choices] object bond pessimism/hopelessness prevails.

[s] aggressive need 20% [3+ choices] may turn to self-aggressive at some point.

[ e] 20% [2 + choices] May see killing of his self as a moral positive.

[d] 20% [2- choices] may desire to reunite with lost early attachments as fantasy.

[k] basic narcissistic ego [ 2 choice-] love of self and image diminishes and new introjection is not fully usable. May feel crushed by life and unable to cope with existing over pressures. When overpressures are lessened [k-] is useful for coping.

[hy] [1 choice 2.5%] the strivings of hysteria refer to a venting or acting out that is under way.
This percent method will be explained at the Szondi Test Study Group.