Saturday, October 12, 2013

6740 Page Views to date 10-11-2013

 This is evidence that there is still interest in the "Szondi Test and the theories of Dr. Szondi several decades after Dr. Szondi's passing. The recent mapping of the human gene discoveries have caused some researchers to review his (1937) gene theory, as to what it is in a person's personality that can be be a gene structured inheritance in respect to. One the discussions, some time back at the Lovaine University (Belgium) is--" to be or not to continue to be Szondians?" Is it the Szondi Test, a false pursuit?, a fiction? Is all this study focus ready to be discarded and all our researches using the Szondi test-to be scraped? How then we do so and give it up, then, do we explain what appears to be consistent dynamic explanations from the tests results that also match verifiable clinical information derived from other sources? It is true that with the march of time, the test photos look so outdated low tech and many of the basic gene related disorders assumptions Dr Szondi used --such as 'Hysteria' and 'Catatonia', are no longer have a place in the labeling system accepted today. .(DSM-IV). Before Dr. Szondi's invention of the Szondi Test, whath he first called the "Genic Affinity Test" his genealogical research had showed recurrences in family lines of eight such recurring conditions, Homosexuals, Sadists, Epileptics. Hysterics, Catatonics, Paranoids, Manic's and Depressive's. Then also is the leap of faith to accept that a subject will like, dislike or ignore these facial photos as a stimulus-response procedure results being a reflection of his own impulses seeking to find satisfaction. That part of Szondi's drive-impulse theory seems so useful for therapists to know in order focus their inquiries on a person's inclinations that he denies or would be otherwise overlooked- When pressed on this point w Szond's answer was--try it yourself. ~ ~ ~ ~

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

The Sex/Gender Vector the four less common choices Item 005


It was Dr. Szondi's insight; (Controversial as it may be) that the Factors he identified (Factor word capitalized here to make it clearl that we are talking about the Szondi Test Factors which he believed were gene transmitted and exist in various mixtures in all humans.
The Szondi Test he invented and offered as 'Experimental', he believed filters out the relative mixture of the Factors. Each Factor representing strivings belonging to the nature of Factor   named in the eest ensemble. that assertion subjects choices revealed a related potential in a person at the time he took the test, In this view if the select choices werestrong and persistent exageraged and presesient the test subject would probably in some degree be much like the mental disorder, which for purposes of study, a Factor takes its name. Here we are focusing on the [h] [s] pair that make up the Sex/Gender Vector to the exclusion of the other three Vector pairs. Later we will attempt to show the interrelation and ballancing of the settings occurs in all four Vector pairs. 



In the choices made in the general population study a subject making ambivalent choices in both the [h] and [s] Factors would alert the test interpretor that the particular subject has symptomatic issues in that aspect of his life that the Factors represent the impulses, strivings, traits and inclinations related to that Facor. Even among those seeking medical or psychological assistance it is usually associated with obvious crisis events. often but always with anxiety, feelinf blocked, hypochondria, and sometimes, a pressing desire for relief from intolerable life situations or related stresses. It rarely is a persistent choice and is interpreted as 'transitional' and more stable settings for that subject can be expected to soon occur.



Here the subject makes and ambivalent choice in the [h] Factor and avoids the [s] Factor photos. With the ambient [h] one can asume the whole specrum of the [h] Factror strive for satisfaction with alernations as to the strivings represented by [h+] for tenderness and body rapport and the [h-] strivings for limited body rapport and mental equivalents associated with humanitarian affinities. The [s0] and the unavailability of the strivings belonging to the [s] Factor serves to add to the resulting conflict and potential to anxiety. In one case the setting appeared after a subject's wild and aggressive sexual affair where 'remorse' flooded his thinking afterward.



xxHere the ambivalence of thin the strivings of the [h+] and the [h-] strvce forsatisfaction though some occultation but the dilike choice in the [s]Factor suggests the interpretation that a bisome channel of regulation and comprmise are accessible by the subject has potentiollly some abilty to try somewhat for best fit to the situation, the sub-setting that exist in the tpe of choice, here the sub-settings of [h+s-], [h-s-] and the rare and therfore unexpected inversion to the missing choice [s+] with sadism potentially being the unrestrained operating striving.


While the both Facors open in the Vector is the lest frquen in the other three Vectors it is somewhat more freyuent. ThiThe suuject making thos avaidance of both the Facore does so by maeing other coices in the other three Vectors an event difficut to attribute to randon occurrace. To find the correct metaphors to explain interpretively what this represents in respect a person's strivings not driving him to some more comforable setting. in the sex/Gender Vector is something of a task. Szondi's capsule heading -- "Infantile sexuality, abstinence" is relevant and applies generally, but, a searh for some dynamics might suggest something along the concept that all the strivings of the entire sex/gender Vector are (using computer metaphors like in Photo-Shop program)-are ' GREYED OUT' AND NOT ACCESSIBLE FOR USE, until other conditions or procedures of the system have been acted on. Some cases may be endocrine in origin. One suggestion is the sex/gender Vector may be so conflicted by past traimas the subject has to avoid the entire sphere in order to cope with his life situation, or some extreem living out of the strivings have recently occurred.
This in some sence reprsents a 'lost of gender" for the subject

6 [00]

Friday, July 12, 2013

The Sexual/Gender Vector Item 004

Here are the four most common Sexual/Gender Szondi Test Findings, for a pre-WW2 Hungarian population, a base or 4000+ profile samples. in the intervening years, the various social and political events would perhaps, have shifted the order of results, as to frequency of occurrence, but not the interpretive meanings. To understand this system, one has to accept that the like, dislike choices. a subject makes taking the test also serve to approximate that subject's drives, traits and inclinations in his life at the time of of the test. sample..


Here the subject has chosen both the [h] and [s] photos as like, and in an average amount and not in an excessive amount, also with a 1 choice diskike thus a counter choice, which is considered desirable (as offering some 'restraint' to the strivings implied by a Factor' inate drive potential.. Here [h+] [s+] suggest the striving do not conflict and move togeter but as a working compromise. the [h].and [Factor] If one rt both factors have 5 or 6 choisec this is indentifed as being in 'overload' and reflects that certain perils belonging to the Factor's related drives-trais-impulses, may potentially occur.
Thus it may be assumed unbalanced or overloaded (Szondi )Factors represent potential symptomatic inclinations for the sujlect. Especially when occurring over several profils taken at the recommended intervals.
[h+]= Need for personal affection, tenderness, body rapport. Feminine-like desires.
[s+]= Need for activity. dominance, preferences for masculine activities Body rapport activities may lack tenderness.


[h+]=As a setting exists in a significant portion of the population both male and female, a choice suggestive of the need for personal affect exists[h+] and same time [s-] is causes the subject to desire it to be satisfied butcan only take indirect and passive, or even masochistic ways to achive satisfactions for the strivings belong to such a direction opposed setting. .

[s0] The subject has an indifference to the [s] photos, exeept foe 1 as like and 1 as dislike,(it can be 1 or none at all) therefore the implication is, the [s] strivings in subject's life are being satisfied in some aspects of his life
This minimal choice in a Factor is caled an 'open' and swhen present suggests an weak need to act futher to satisfy its stivings. Also it does not seve to restrain the companion Factor in this case [h+].

S4 Here the subject avoids the [h] photos [h=0] and with this setting,t loses its balancing regulation from the striving belonging to the [h] factor and wih the disliking the [of the [s] photos would be inclined toward inactivity and the masochistic part of the sado-masochistic spectrum that the [s] photos represent.

S4 Here the subject likes the [h] photos and dislikes the [s]photes, a choice moere common to women and when present in men men suggests an move toward n inclination to a female-like role role in life.. When Factoes are set thid contrasting way, it is called 'a diagonal spilt') Diaggonial splits make strong drive needs to occur but characteristically they lose desirable smoothness or ability to fine tune how its strivings are carried into the relationship needs the two factors represent.

For the next item, for contrast. we will jump to the 'four least frequent occurring' Sexual/Gemder Settings, which represent human outcomes and preference much more difficult or symptomatic for a person.

Saturday, July 6, 2013

Szondi Test Study Group Item OO3

Some consideration are in order as you start to explore  and study the Szondi Test and seek to understand its doctrine. The doctrine being in a practical sense, more important than the test applications. Just imagine, if the DSM manual had been written as inventories of traits, behaviors and symptoms ,organized on the eight hereditary factors selected by Dr. Szondi and their particular impulse generations instead of the terms of identifiable consistent labeling that is anattempts to provide and use today as the official psychology vocabulary.

 Further the mapping of the human genome, also has renewed interest in the Szondi  theory of gene heredity prototypes as creating a person's inclinations, traits and which potentially influence various choice made outcomes. And in  some cases when the heredity is strong, the very same psychiatric  conditions that Dr. Szondi used in his genealogical research and his invention "The Szondi Test." can be shown to exist in a person's further back in history gene ancestors.

The question may never be fully answerable but still worth trying to answer for each of us in our own way to try to some answers,--is 'How much of our mind work,  mood, behaviors and symptoms are outcome results of inheritance are passed on to using the from of drive-needs buried inside of ourselves?

While the test itself is the main tool one uses to expose, demonstrate and grasp the Szondi doctrine its use as presented here has the goal to facilitate learning the doctrine with the aim of demonstrating some aspects of this an alternate way of understanding the various human impulse outcomes, that seem deeply hidden under the many cultural pressures and the many rationalizations we ourselves, make.

 You, as an inquiring person, will in all probability, wish to try Szondi testing on your self and perhaps others in your circle of acquaintances. As a student of the system you may do so, but with certann cautions, along the direction of keeping such activities  unobtrusive and not claiming it to be other than your research project, with the declaimer that the activity is experimental and a study work, and its usefulness for discussion lies in its unique concepts.

cursory remarks as to tension levels or; Factor settings may be offered, and is most useful when the subject is a fellow Szondi Test student or yourself. 

ou will mostly likely discover most people you approach to take the test will derive some satisfaction from their curiosity to see the images of alleged mental disorder types and are happy to provide some personal and family history as long as it does not get  too intrusive.

As the time passes the test results found, began to shape and expand the test theories. In this way it offered insights useful in assisting teachers, vocational counselors, employment recruiters, criminal profilers in addition to those in the various mental health and therapy professions. Lastly never claim a 'psychiatric diagnosis' 
unless you are legally licensed to do so, and have other supporting findings justifying your conclusions.

The t est is usually interesting enough mostto potential test subjects will be willing to go along just to see the f  woareee the Szondi Test photos. Should they refuse you need to be gracious,  respect their decision and thank them for their interest and move on to finding to some other subjects.

 likely discover most people you approach to take the test will derive some satisfaction from their curiosity to see the images of alleged mental disorder types and are happy to provide some personal and family history as long as it does not get  too intrusive.

Most people you may ask to take the test will be interested enough to see the Szondi Test photos  and will be willing to take a shot at doing so. Should they refuse you need to be gracious,  respect their decision and thank them for their interest and move on to finding to some other subjects.

later on when opportunities for repeat testing occur it may be useful to explain the  previous test coices  may have changed and that this is not a memory test,  and that they should not linger long over making their choices. In strict controlled research no feedback on previous test findings are given. In the not so strict or casual research some cursory remarks as to tension levels or; Factor settings may be offered, and is most useful when the subject is a fellow Szondi Test student or yourself. 

 Otherwise it may not useful or wise to attempt to teach every subject, the inner workings of the test protocol and all the possibilities of interpretation.the Szondi Test offers. A suggested approach as to give subject some feedback, is to briefly mention that tensions are caused by some genic affinity wishing to find satisfaction and that normal isas a mixture of genic affinities, as everyone is a mixture of these psychiatric labels that Dr. Szondi uses for his test, One may need to politely as possible cut short conversation while test procedures are in  progress.. 

You might use remarks  something like--" It might be useful to talk about that later when we have more profiles to review--".


Thursday, July 4, 2013

Szondi Study Group item 002

To understand the Szondi Test, you need to accept Dr. Szondi's selection, although critics frequently ask why just these disorders? Dr. Szondi answered something like--".. show me some other ones, that will work in this system--"

Each of the six sets of photos, has one photo each to represent, one of the eight  'gene related mental disorders'. each photo represents  an opportunity to be liked or not liked by the person taking the test and a way of filtering out a projected relevance for that person.
The interpretive phase that the results are used for then can identify the relative mix of  'drive impulses' that may be seeking to find satisfaction drectly or indirectly at tat time. These as findinf for intertretation may suggest the dynamics behind symptoms and non-adaptive behaviors . As when is the case when drive impulses are not satisfied or out of balance with each other. Generally, it follows, that balanced profiles indicate good coping skills and a adequate adjustment making in life and cause the subject to feel pleasure and satisfaction.

 Here the 'equal sign' is used to suggest the general direction each  hereditary 'Factor' generates as an inclinations traits or sometimes symptoms.

{The eight Szondi Factors are presented here as arbitrarily modernized by your editor-(FB)-for strict fidelity, always go to original sources.}

 Sexual Vector [REGISTRY/GENDER]
1.  homosexual (h)  =Need for tenderness in body rapport. motherly or somewhat feminine soft passive attitude.
2.  sadist (s)  =Need for hardness, in body rapport, physical activity or somewhat masculine aggressive attitude.

3.  epileptic (e)  =potentially emotional control issues seeking satisfaction, often  as sudden moral stance shifts or ethical dilemmas/
4.  hysterical (hy)  =potentially seeks ways to show self and gain admiration and get positive feed-back from others.

5. Schizophrenic  catatonic (k) = need/function of introjecton, imitation and build of narcissistic positions.
6. Schizophrenic  paranoid (p)  =need/function of projection, seeking/finding modes  or others for participation  in  satisfying the pressure from the other drives. In exaggerated forms, as a potential to the out-shifting of  inner conflicts. fears, or frustrations, as being seen as being caused by others.

7.  depressed (d)  =mood disorder potentially relationship related or triggered. May lead to clinging to or breaking free of attachment bonds. bipolar reactions. Anal personality characteristics.
8.  manic (m)  =mood elevation, in exaggerated forms, irrational optimism. Oral personality characteristics, restless seeking of party like or new adventures.

Wednesday, July 3, 2013

Szondi Test Study Item 001

Hungarian psychiatrist, Leopold Szondi invention, "The Szondi Test" Dr. Szondi said; worked as a projective test, do to an innate principle that he believed everyone  has, that will  cause a person to like or dislike the facial features  photos of individuals suffering from certan  eight specific mental disorder conditions, used in his test set; in anlog proportions relevant to the photos like and dislike reaction, as if, a mirror of the related drive impulses somewhat as if a mixed mental inheritance traits that are seeking to satisfy themselves. 

'Normal', then being, a balanced mixture and 'abnormal' being choice making leading to unwanted symptoms or over time to certain forms of existence  These are do to an unbalanced  'dive impulse 'mixtures. A persons choices of the reagent facial photes then reflect that the test subject person has traits and impulses derived from that person's gene ancestry, that shape a persons preferential choices in his life including sexual mates, friends, occupations, and over time that person's final trajectory in life, therefore in some terms, a fate path.This effect was called 'genotrophism'. Szondi perhaps to attract notice, called this overall work and test use  "Fate Analysis" and the theoretical basis "Fate Analytic Psychology".

Introduction Notes:
To start with to learn details of the Szondi Test and it's unique theoretical basis, it seens wise to in general to follow the introductory appeach of SUSAN DERI, Dr. Szondi's star student and co-worker. But with the up front caution you will find many revisions are how added do to shifts of emphasis away from Freudian based psychoanalysis in the intervening years since the publication of Deri's, 1948 "Introduction to the Szondi Test -(Grune & Stratton, N.Y.). as well as Dr. Szondi's  own continued  evolution  his own thinking toward a concept of 'states of existance', as being the the end result of an individual's outcome position in life (a person's gene driven fate) only partly modifiable by edication, social pressue ans his significant relationships and environmental pressures.  Further  my own limited  experience with a very different patient base and cultural background location which may have caused me to introduce incorrect revisions, without notice. Please go to original sources should you need total fidelity. My goal is to open up new ways of thinking from which you the inquiring person can decide for yourself, what may or may not be of value to consider.  
Interestingly the recent mapping of the human  genome has caused a renewed interest in idea of traits temperaments, impulses, and mental disorders, that might be gene passed.
--Dr. B

It's now multiple decades  since,  Leopold ('Lipot'- in Hungarian) Szondi, M.D., World War 1 Hungarian army medic, professor, qualified in both endocrinology and psychiatry and later psychoanalysis, through a training analysis with a  Budapest protégé of  psycoanalyst Sandor Ferenzi, Dr Szondi came to constructed a picture test as an assist to genealogical studies he was conducting in marriage and mate selection genecology studies that he was investigating at the time. 

The test material, consisted of 48 photo­graphs of eight types of mental patients who had a clinical diagnosis and a confirmed recurring same disorder in their family history.  Tha test photes were printed on 2"x3" cards in te final test set. Copyrighted as the "Szondi Test" and distributed by Hans Huber Press, Berne Switzerland.

 The eight mental disorders represented were ones that Dr. Szondi believed were certain ones gene passed. The original purpose of this test was to prove experimentally his theory about gene passed heredity causing people's choices in life, particularly love and marriage mates in the role of genotrophism being a hidden influence in an individual's choices in his adult life this was quickly extended to a testing of the public and specical clinical populating as the information base expanded and with what was learned from various choices belonging to specific population groups both inside clinical labels and outside groups, such as schools jail populatond and age and occupational groups. This way filling out a knowledge base of many different  psychological types considered normal. different or mental issues types. This led Dr. Szondi to conclude that there are many different normal's that have different paths leading to where the individual finds his position in life, in his later works these are described as 'forms of existence'.. 

 According  to his  theory, the mental disorders repre­sented in the test set are of genetic origin and cause through some inate reflex, he called the non-verbal "language of choice' --('like, dislike or indifference') as the subject's reactions to these select photographs. This has heen called 'fanciful' 'unprovable '-by critics of the test, to whom Dr. Szondi suggested, that they try it for themselves before rejecting it.

Dr. Szondi believed that a subject's choice depended upon some automatic simularity between the gene­tic facial structure that in some cryptic way a reagent photo carryed traces of the traits and impulses, a subject will  subconsciously responds to and which then, parallels in the test results choices in life parelling as inclinations in the photo ensemble, a reflection of what are are needs and drives in his life.

Test results are a reflection of the subject's  preferences at that moment in time that the Szondi  profile was sampled.

 The choices a test subject makes may be stable and some choices may change as subject's life aand  various curcumstances and needs change. This is very notable with inthe  examples of different moods, stages of development, hormonal effects, and with the use of certain medications and street drugs.
These  changes do not invalidate the test, and are in fact, one of this test's unique values. most useful for recognizing the changing moods and drive impulse are revealed in sequential different profiles when taken at the recommended, every other day retake of the test.

A 'drive-impuse' hypotheses is suggested, as derived from the test interpretative use. It can be considered as posible that that each disorder the test represents, only become that disorder clinically, when existing in a persistent and exaggerated strength, supported by a recessive gene ancestors making the particular disorde a come possible outcome. 

'Normal' then, being a balanced mixture of the overall drive-impulses associated with these eight mental inheritance lines universal to our species.

 This is reflected as the profiles change as the needs each profile factor {modeled on the inclinations and drive nature the mental disorder it takes its name from} has for a subject in that a subject become indiferent to those factors photo choice process. This is believed to happen when the drive-needs relating to that disorder traits belongin to the eitht mental disorders (also mamed in the test as Factor's}. It is hypothized that the Factors -- have by some means been satisfied. In the test profile such a lack of choices an indifference is called an 'open'  in the Szondi Test jargon you will need to learn.

The  cods for disoders selected by Dr. Sondi were: Homosexuality [h], Sadism [s] , Epilepcy [e\, Hysteria][hy], Catatonia [k]. paranoiia, [p]. deesive [d] manic [m]
Today these choices may seem odd and several have been purged from DSM-IV as most being obsolite. But before you grap your DSM handbook and leave, you need to eee what Szondi took them to mean in his way of thinking. These terms still have meaning and have only been fragmented and assigned to new labels in the handbook.

The photos finally selected for use in the  Szondi Test ensemble were of subject patients known to work well in causing the useful match choice responses  with reliable comparisons to the specific mental disorder for which a reagent or stimulus photo was needed.
The test building process was to involve exploring various traits, inclinations and clinical issues to find the correct interpretaion process. were by trial and error practice tested before they were included in final test set. The ensemble has not been revised since its publication. The low tech printing quality of which has been a contention of critics since its publication after world war 2 ended and Dr, Szondi became a Swiss resident and had the resources to publish and continue the development of what he always called his 'experimental test'.

My principle source after Szondi himself is Susan Deri who was present during the test development phase, carried out in Hungary before the outbreak of world war 2.
 She preferred a psychoanalytic based dynamic model approach for interpretation of the test findings, which differs from the empiric and statistical model apparently preferred by Dr. Szondi himself. There are newer investigators combining more recent revisions in interpretation useage, such as Michael Legrand writing in French and who introduces fresh dialog on the 'forms of existence'  in respect to the ultimate fate of individuals,

To take a Szondi Test 'profile'  The subject ts asked in six sets of eight photos each, to choose, without hesitation, the two pictures subject liked most and the two he likes the least. In this way examiner ends up with twelve 'likes' an twelve dislikes'. On the back of each picture is a code to inform the examiner to where to enter the result into a grid designed By Dr, Szondi  to display the result.  The test has been given to groups on slides. Others have set it up on computer screens and web sites where people can take the test without using the physical cards.

 Szondi describes his test as an experimental method for revealing the psychologic effects of genes as they direct us in our spontaneous choice actions. Useful for therapists, teachers, occupational counselors and criminologists.

Susan Deri 'Introduction to the Szondi Test' (c) Grune & Stratton, NY, NY
Szondi, L: 'Schicksalsanalyse'. Basel, Bruno Schwabe, 1948. 
Szondi L. Experimental Diagnostics of Drives' 1952 Grune & Stratton NY, NY.
Szondi, Moser & all, 'the Szondi Test in Diagnostics' Lippencot CO. Pheledelphia?Momtreal

Legrand, Mitchel "Leopold Szondi his test and his doctrine.'(fn French),

Saturday, June 29, 2013

Leopold Szondi's Theory of "Genic Affinity"

Hungarian psychiatrist, Leopold Szondi invention, "The Szondi Test" Dr. Szondi said; worked as a projective test, do to an innate principle that he believed everyone  has, that will  cause a person to like or dislike the facial features  photos of individuals suffering from eight specific mental disorder conditions used in his test set in the same proportions relevant to the photos, as if a mirror of the related drive impulses resembling somewhat that mental inheritance traits. Normal, then being a balanced mixture and abnormal are unbalanced mixtures of choices then might reflect a person had traits and impulses derived from that person's gene ancestry that then shape a persons preferential choices of sexual mate, friends, occupations, and over time that person's final trajectory in life, therefore in some terms a fate path. Szondi perhaps to attract notice, called this overall work and test use  "Fate Analysis".

Saturday, May 11, 2013

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